The ICE abstraction may take CS from serial (single-core) computing to effective parallel (many-core) computing.
The recent dramatic shift from single-processor computer systems to many-processor parallel ones requires reinventing much of computer science to build and program the new systems. CS urgently requires convergence to a robust parallel general-purpose platform providing good performance and programming easy enough for all CS students and graduates. Unfortunately, ease-of-programming objectives have eluded parallel-computing research over at least the past four decades. The idea of starting with an established easy-to-apply parallel programming model and building an architecture for it has been treated as radical by hardware and software vendors alike. Here, I advocate an even more radical parallel programming and architecture idea: Start with a simple abstraction encapsulating the desired interface between programmers and system builders.
I begin by proposing the Immediate Concurrent Execution (ICE) abstraction, followed by two contributions supporting this abstraction I have led:
XMT. A general-purpose many-core explicit multi-threaded (XMT) computer architecture designed from the ground up to capitalize on the on-chip resources becoming available to support the formidable body of knowledge, known as parallel randomaccess machine (model), or PRAM, algorithmics, and the latent, though not widespread, familiarity with it; and
Workflow. A programmer's workflow links ICE, PRAM algorithmics, and XMT programming. The ICE abstraction of an algorithm is followed by a description of the algorithm for the synchronous PRAM, allowing ease of reasoning about correctness and complexity, which is followed by multithreaded programming that relaxes this synchrony for the sake of implementation. Directly reasoning about soundness and performance of multithreaded code is generally known to be error-prone. To circumvent the likelihood of errors, the workflow incorporates multiple levels of abstraction; the programmer must establish only that multithreaded program behavior matches the synchronous PRAM-like algorithm it implements, a much simpler task. Current XMT hardware and software prototypes and demonstrated ease-of-programming and strong speedups suggest that CS may be much better prepared for the challenges ahead than many of our colleagues realize.
A notable rudimentary abstractionthat any single instruction available for execution in a serial program executes immediatelymade serial computing simple. Abstracting away a hierarchy of memories, each with greater capacity but slower access time than its predecessor, along with different execution time for different operations, this Immediate Serial Execution (ISE) abstraction has been used by programmers for years to conceptualize serial computing and ensure support by hardware and compilers. A program provides the instruction to be executed next at each step (inductively). The left side of Figure 1 outlines serial execution as implied by this ISE abstraction, where unit-time instructions execute one at a time.
The rudimentary parallel abstraction I propose here is that indefinitely many instructions available for concurrent execution execute immediately, dubbing the abstraction Immediate Concurrent Execution. A consequence of ICE is a step-by-step (inductive) explication of the instructions available next for concurrent execution. The number of instructions in each step is independent of the number of processors, which are not even mentioned. The explication falls back on the serial abstraction in the event of one instruction per step. The right side of Figure 1 outlines parallel execution as implied by the ICE abstraction. At each time unit, any number of unit-time instructions that can execute concurrently do so, followed by yet another time unit in which the same execution pattern repeats, and so on, as long as the program is running.
How might parallelism be advantageous for performance? The PRAM answer is that in a serial program the number of time units, or "depth," is the same as the algorithm's total number of operations, or "work," while in the parallel program the number of time units can be much lower. For a parallel program, the objective is that its work does not much exceed that of its serial counterpart for the same problem, and its depth is much lower than its work. (Later in the article, I note the straightforward connection between ICE and the rich PRAM algorithmic theory and that ICE is nothing more than a subset of the work-depth model.) But how would a system designer go about building a computer system that realizes the promise of ease of programming and strong performance?
Outlining a comprehensive solution, I discuss basic tension between the PRAM abstraction and hardware implementation and a workflow that goes through ICE and PRAM-related abstractions for programming the XMT computer architecture.
Some many-core architectures are likely to become mainstream, meaning they must be easy enough to program by every CS major and graduate. I am not aware of other many-core architectures with PRAM-like abstraction. Allowing programmers to view a computer operation as a PRAM would make it easy to program,10 hence this article should interest all such majors and graduates.
Until 2004, standard (desktop) computers comprised a single processor core. Since 2005 when multi-core computers became the standard, CS has appeared to be on track with a prediction5 of 100+-core computers by the mid-2010s. Transition from serial (single-core) computing to parallel (many-core) computing mandates the reinvention of the very heart of CS, as these highly parallel computers must be built and programmed differently from the single-core machines that dominated standard computer systems since the inception of the field almost 70 years ago. By 2003, the clock rate of a high-end desktop processor had reached 4GHz, but processor clock rates have improved only barely, if at all, since then; the industry simply did not find a way to continue improving clock rates within an acceptable power budget.5 Fortunately, silicon technology improvements (such as miniaturization) allow the amount of logic a computer chip can contain to keep growing, doubling every 18 to 24 months per Gordon Moore's 1965 prediction. Computers with an increasing number of cores are now expected but without significant improvement in clock rates. Exploiting the cores in parallel for faster completion of a computing task is today the only way to improve performance of individual tasks from one generation of computers to the next.
Unfortunately, chipmakers are designing multi-core processors most programmers can't handle,19 a problem of broad interest. Software production has become a key component of the manufacturing sector of the economy. Mainstream machines most programmers can't handle cause significant decline in productivity of manufacturing, a concern for the overall economy. Andy Grove, former Chairman of the Board of Intel Corp., said in the 1990s that the software spiralthe cyclic process of hardware improvements leading to software improvements leading back to hardware improvementswas an engine of sustained growth for IT for decades to come. A stable application-software base that could be reused and enhanced from one hardware generation to the next was available for exploitation. Better performance was assured with each new generation, if only the hardware could run serial code faster. Alas, the software spiral today is broken.21 No broad parallel-computing application software base exists for which hardware vendors are committed to improving performance. And no agreed-upon parallel architecture allows application programmers to build such a base for the foreseeable future. Instating a new software spiral could indeed be a killer app for general-purpose many-core computing; application software developers would put it to good use for specific applications, and more consumers worldwide would want to buy new machines.
This robust market for many-core-based machines and applications leads to the following case for government support: Foremost among today's challenges is many-core convergence, seeking timely convergence to a robust many-core platform coupled with a new many-core software spiral to serve the world of computing for years to come. A software spiral is basically an infrastructure for the economy. Since advancing infrastructures generally depends on government funding, designating software-spiral rebirth a killer app also motivates funding agencies and major vendors to support the work. The impact on manufacturing productivity could further motivate them.
ICE requires the lowest level of cognition from the programmer relative to all current parallel programming models. Other approaches require additional steps (such as decomposition10). In CS theory, the speedup provided by parallelism is measured as work divided by depth; reducing the advantage of ICE/PRAM to practice is a different matter.
The reduction to practice I have led relies on the programmer's workflow, as outlined in the right side of Figure 2. Later, I briefly cover the parallel-algorithms stage. The step-by-step PRAM explication, or "data-parallel" instructions, represents a traditional tightly synchronous outlook on parallelism. Unfortunately, tight step-by-step synchrony is not a good match with technology, including its power constraints.
To appreciate the difficulty of implementing step-by-step synchrony in hardware, consider two examples: Memories based on long tightly synchronous pipelines of the type seen in Cray vector machines have long been out of favor among architects of high-performance computing; and processing memory requests takes from one to 400 clock cycles. Hardware must be made as flexible as possible to advance without unnecessary waiting for concurrent memory requests.
To underscore the importance of the bridge the XMT approach builds from the tightly synchronous PRAM to relaxed synchrony implementation, note three known limitations with power consumption of multi-core architectures: high power consumption of the wide communication buses needed to implement cache coherence; basic nm complexity of cache-coherence traffic (given n cores and m invalidations) and implied toll on inter-core bandwidth; and high power consumption needed for a tightly synchronous implementation in silicon in these designs. The XMT approach addresses all three by avoiding hardware-supported cache-coherence altogether and by significantly relaxing synchrony.
Workflow is important, as it guides the human-to-machine process of programming; see Figure 2 for two workflows. The non-XMT hardware implementation on the left side of the figure may require revisiting and changing the algorithm to fit bandwidth constraints among threads of the computation, a programming process that doesn't always yield an acceptable outcome. However, the XMT hardware allows a workflow (right side of the figure) that requires tuning only for performance; revisiting and possibly changing the algorithm is generally not needed. An optimizing compiler should be able to do its own tuning without programmer intervention, as in serial computing.
Most of the programming effort in traditional parallel programming (domain partitioning, load balancing) is generally of lesser importance for exploiting on-chip parallelism, where parallelism overhead can be kept low and processor-to-memory bandwidth high. This observation drove development of the XMT programming model and its implementation by my research team. XMT is intended to provide a simpler parallel programming model that efficiently exploits on-chip parallelism through multiple design elements.
The XMT architecture uses a high-bandwidth low-latency on-chip inter-connection network to provide more uniform memory-access latencies. Other specialized XMT hardware primitives allow concurrent instantiation of as many threads as the number of available processors, a count that can reach into the thousands. Specifically, XMT can perform two main operations: forward (instantly) program instructions to all processors in the time required to forward the instructions (for one thread) to just one processor; and reallocate any number of processors that complete their jobs at the same time to new jobs (along with their instructions) in the time required to reallocate one processor. The high-bandwidth, low-latency interconnection network and low-overhead creation of many threads allow efficient support for the fine-grain parallelism used to hide memory latencies and a programming model for which locality is less an issue than in designs with less bandwidth. These mechanisms support dynamic load balancing, relieving programmers from having to directly assign work to processors. The programming model is simplified further by letting threads run to completion without synchronization (no busy-waits) and synchronizing access to shared data with prefix-sum (fetch-and-add type) instructions. These features result in a flexible programming style that accommodates the ICE abstraction and encourages program development for a range of applications.
The reinvention of computing for parallelism also requires pulling together a number of technical communities. My 2009 paper26 sought to build a bridge to other architectures by casting the abstraction-centric vision of this article as a possible module in them, identifying a limited number of capabilities the module provides and suggesting a preferred embodiment of these capabilities using concrete "hardware hooks." If it is possible to augment a computer architecture through them (with hardware hooks or other means), the ICE abstraction and the programmer's workflow, in line with this article, can be supported. The only significant obstacle in today's multi-core architectures is their large cache-coherent local caches. Their limited scalability with respect to power gives vendors more reasons beyond an easier programming model to let go of this obstacle.
PRAM parallel algorithmic approach. The parallel random-access machine/model (PRAM) virtual model of computation is a generalization of the random-access machine (RAM) model.9 RAM, the basic serial model behind standard programming languages, assumes any memory access or any operation (logic or arithmetic) takes unit-time (serial abstraction). The formal PRAM model assumes a certain number, say, p of processors, each able to concurrently access any location of a shared memory in the same time as a single access. PRAM has several submodels that differ by assumed outcome of concurrent access to the same memory location for either read or write purposes. Here, I note only one of themthe Arbitrary Concurrent-Read Concurrent-Write (CRCW) PRAMwhich allows concurrent accesses to the same memory location for reads or writes; reads complete before writes, and an arbitrary write (to the same location, unknown in advance) succeeds. PRAM algorithms are essentially prescribed as a sequence of rounds and, for each round, up to p processors execute concurrently. The performance objective is to minimize the number of rounds. The PRAM parallel-algorithmic approach is well-known and has never been seriously challenged by any other parallel-algorithmic approach in terms of ease of thinking or wealth of knowledgebase. However, PRAM is also a strict formal model. A PRAM algorithm must therefore prescribe for each and every one of its p processors the instruction the processor executes at each time unit in a detailed computer-program-like fashion that can be quite demanding. The PRAM-algorithms theory mitigates this instruction-allocation scheme through the work-depth (WD) methodology.
This methodology (due to Shiloach and Vishkin20) suggests a simpler way to allocate instructions: A parallel algorithm can be prescribed as a sequence of rounds, and for each round, any number of operations can be executed concurrently, assuming unlimited hardware. The total number of operations is called "work," and the number of rounds is called "depth," as in the ICE abstraction. The first performance objective is to reduce work, and the immediate second one is to reduce depth. The methodology of restricting attention only to work and depth has been used as the main framework for the presentation of PRAM algorithms16,17 and is in my class notes on the XMT home page http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/users/vishkin/XMT/. Deriving a full PRAM description from a WD description is easy. For concreteness, I demonstrate WD descriptions on two examples, the first concerning parallelism, the second concerning the WD methodology (see the sidebar "Parallel Algorithms").
The programmer's workflow starts with the easy-to-understand ICE abstraction and ends with the XMT system, providing a practical implementation of the vast PRAM algorithmic knowledge base.
XMT programming model. The programming model behind the XMT framework is an arbitrary concurrent read, concurrent write single program multiple data, or CRCW SPMD, programming model with two executing modes: serial and parallel. The two instructionsspawn and joinspecify the beginning and end, respectively, of a parallel section (see Figure 3). An arbitrary number of virtual threads, initiated by a spawn and terminated by a join, share the same code. The workflow relies on the spawn command to extend the ICE abstraction from the WD methodology to XMT programming. As with the respective PRAM model, the arbitrary CRCW aspect dictates that concurrent writes to the same memory location result in an arbitrary write committing. No assumption needs to be made by the programmer beforehand about which one will succeed. An algorithm designed with this property in mind permits each thread to progress at its own speed, from initiating spawn to terminating join, without waiting for other threadsno thread "busy-waits" for another thread. The implied "independence of order semantics" allows XMT to have a shared memory with a relatively weak coherence model. An advantage of this easier-to-implement SPMD model is that it is PRAM-like. It also incorporates the prefix-sum statement operating on a base variable, B, and an increment variable, R. The result of a prefix-sum is that B gets the value B + R, while R gets the initial value of B, a result called "atomic" that's similar to fetch-and-increment in Gottlieb et al.12
The primitive is especially useful when several threads perform a prefix-sum simultaneously against a common base, because multiple prefix-sum operations can be combined by the hardware to form a very fast multi-operand prefix-sum operation. Because each prefix-sum is atomic, each thread returns a different R value. This way, the parallel prefix-sum command can be used to implement efficient and scalable inter-thread synchronization by arbitrating an ordering among the threads.
The XMTC high-level language implements the programming model. XMTC is an extension of standard C, augmenting C with a small number of commands (such as spawn, join, and prefix-sum). Each parallel region is delineated by spawn and join statements, and synchronization is achieved through the prefix-sum and join commands. Every thread executing the parallel code is assigned a unique thread ID, designated $. The spawn statement takes as arguments the lowest ID and highest ID of the threads to be spawned. For the hardware implementation (discussed later), XMTC threads can be as short as eight to 10 machine instructions that are not difficult to get from PRAM algorithms. Programmers from high school to graduate school are pleasantly surprised by the flexibility of translating PRAM algorithms to XMTC multi-threaded programs. The ability to code the whole merging algorithm using a single spawn-join pair is one such surprise (see the sidebar "Merging with a Single Spawn-Join").
To demonstrate simple code, consider two code examples:
The first is a small XMTC program for the parallel exchange algorithm discussed in the "Parallel Algorithms" sidebar:
The program spawns a concurrent thread for each of the depth-3 serial-exchange iterations using a local variable x. Note that the join command is implied by the right parenthesis at the end of the program.
The second assumes an array of n integers A. The programmer wishes to "compact" the array by copying all non-zero values to another array, B, in an arbitrary order. The XMTC code is:
It declares a variable x as the base value to be used in a prefix-sum command (ps in XMTC), initializing it to 0. It then spawns a thread for each of the n elements in A. A local thread variable e is initialized to 1. If the element of the thread is non-zero, the thread performs a prefix-sum to get a unique index into B where it can place its value.
Other XMTC commands. Prefix-sum-to-memory (psm) is another prefix-sum command, the base of which is any location in memory. While the increment of ps must be 0 or 1, the increment of psm is not limited, though its implementation is less efficient. Single Spawn (sspawn) is a command that can spawn an extra thread and be nested. A nested spawn command in XMTC code must be replaced (by programmer or compiler) by sspawn commands. The XMTC commands are described in the programmer's manual included in the software release on the XMT Web pages.
Tuning XMT programs for performance. My discussion here of performance tuning would be incomplete without a description of salient features of the XMT architecture and hardware. The XMT on-chip general-purpose computer architecture is aimed at the classic goal of reducing single-task completion time. The WD methodology gives algorithm designers the ability to express all the parallelism they observe. XMTC programming further permits expressing this virtual parallelism by letting programmers express as many concurrent threads as they wish. The XMT processor must now provide an effective way to map this virtual parallelism onto the hardware. The XMT architecture provides dynamic allocation of the XMTC threads onto the hardware for better load balancing. Since XMTC threads can be short, the XMT hardware must directly manage XMT threads to keep overhead low. In particular, an XMT program looks like a single thread to the operating system (see the sidebar "The XMT Processor" for an overview of XMT hardware).
The main thing performance programmers must know in order to tune the performance of their XMT programs is that a ready-to-run version of an XMT program depends on several parameters: the length of the (longest) sequence of roundtrips to memory (LSRTM); queuing delay to the same shared memory location (known as queue-read queue-write, or QRQW11); and work and depth. Their optimization is a responsibility shared subtly by the architecture, the compiler, and the programmer/algorithm designer.
See Vishkin et al27 for a demonstration of tuning XMTC code for performance by accounting for LSRTM. As an example, it improves XMT hardware performance on the problem of summing n numbers.
Execution can differ from the literal XMTC code in order to keep the size of working space under control or otherwise improve performance. For example, compiler and runtime methods could perform this modification by clustering virtual threads offline or online and prioritize execution of nested spawns using known heuristics based on a mix of depth-first and breadth-first searches.
Commitments to silicon of XMT by my research team at the University of Maryland include a 64-processor, 75MHz computer based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology developed by Wen28 and 64-processor ASIC 10mm X 10mm chip using IBM's 90nm technology developed together by Balkan, Horak, Keceli, and Wen (see Figure 4). Tzannes and Cargaea (guided by Barua and me) have also developed a basic yet stable compiler, and Keceli has developed a cycle-accurate simulator of XMT. Both are available through the XMT software release on the XMT Web pages.
Easy to build. An individual graduate student with no prior design experience completed the XMT hardware description (in Verilog) in just over two years (20052007). XMT is also silicon-efficient. The ASIC design by the XMT research team at the University of Maryland shows that a 64-processor XMT needs the same silicon area as a (single) current commodity core. The XMT approach goes after any type of application parallelism regardless of how much parallelism the application requires, the regularity of this parallelism, or the parallelism's grain size, and is amenable to standard multiprogramming where the hardware supports several concurrent operating-system threads.
The XMT team has demonstrated good XMT performance, independent software engineers have demonstrated XMT programmability (see Hochstein et al.14), and independent education professionals have demonstrated XMT teachability (see Torbert et al.23). Highlights include evidence of 100X speedups on general-purpose applications on a simulator of 1,000 on-chip processors13 and speedups ranging from 15X to 22X for irregular problems (such as Quicksort, breadth-first search on graphs, finding the longest path in a directed acyclic graph), and speedups of 35X45X for regular programs (such as matrix multiplication and convolution) on the 64-processor XMT prototype versus the best serial code on XMT.28
In 2009, Caragea et al.8 demonstrated nearly 10X average performance improvement potential relative to Intel Core 2 Duo for a 64-processor XMT chip using the same silicon area as a single core. In 2010, Caragea et al.7 demonstrated that, using the same silicon area as a modern graphics processing unit (GPU), the XMT design achieves an average speedup of 6X relative to the GPU for irregular applications and falls only slightly behind on regular ones. All GPU code was written and optimized by researchers and programmers unrelated to the XMT project.
With few exceptions, parallel programming approaches that dominated parallel computing prior to many-cores are still favored by vendors, as well as high-performance users. The steps they require include decomposition, assignments, orchestration, and mapping.10 Indeed, parallel programming difficulties have failed all general-purpose parallel systems to date by limiting their use. In contrast, XMT frees its programmers from doing all the steps, in line with the ICE/PRAM abstraction.
The XMT software environment release (a 2010 release of the XMTC compiler and cycle-accurate simulator of XMT) is available by free download from the XMT home page and from sourceforge.net, along with extensive documentation, and can be downloaded to any standard desktop computing platform. Teaching materials covering a class-tested programming methodology in which students are taught only parallel algorithms are also available from the XMT Web pages.
Most CS programs today graduate students to a job market certain to be dominated by parallelism but without the preparation they need. The level of awareness of parallelism required by the ICE/PRAM abstraction is so basic it is necessary for all other current approaches. As XMT is also buildable, the XMT approach is sufficient for programming a real machine. I therefore propose basing the introduction of the new generation of CS students to parallelism on the workflow presented here, at least until CS generally converges on a many-core platform.
Related efforts. Related efforts toward parallelism come in several flavors; for example, Valiant's Multi-BSP bridging model for multi-core computing24 appears closest to the XMT focus on abstraction. The main difference, however, is that XMT aims to preempt known shortcomings in existing machines by showing how to build machines differently, while the modeling in Valiant24 aims to improve understanding of existing machines.
These prescriptive versus descriptive objectives are not the only difference. Valiant24 modeled relatively low-level parameters of certain multi-core architectures, making them closer to Vishkin et al.27 than to this article. Unlike both sources, simplicity drives the "one-liner" ICE abstraction. Parallel languages (such as CUDA, MPI, and OpenMP) tend to be different from computational models, as they often do not involve performance modeling. They require a level of detail that distances them farther from simple abstractions.
Several research centers1,2 are actively exploring the general problems discussed here. The University of California, Berkeley, Parallel Computing Lab and Stanford University's Pervasive Parallelism Laboratory advocate an application-driven approach to reinventing computing for parallelism.
The vertical integration of a parallel-processing system, compiler, programming, and algorithms proposed here through the XMT framework with the ICE/PRAM abstraction as its front-end is notable for its relative simplicity. ICE is a newly defined feature that has not appeared in prior research, including my own, and is more rudimentary than prior parallel computing concepts. Rudimentary concepts are the basis for the fundamental development of any field. ICE can be viewed as an axiom that builds on mathematical induction, one of the more rudimentary concepts in mathematics. The suggestion here of using a simple abstraction as the guiding principle for reinventing computing for parallelism also appears to be new. Considerable evidence suggests it can be done (see the sidebar "Eye-of-a-Needle Aphorism").
The following comparison with a chapter on multithreading algorithms in the 2009 textbook Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen et al.9 helps clarify some of the article's contributions. The 1990 first edition of Cormen et al.9 included a chapter on PRAM algorithms emphasizing the role of work-depth design and analysis; the 2009 chapter9 likewise emphasized work-depth analysis. However, to match current commercial hardware, the 2009 chapter turned to a variant of dynamic multithreading (in lieu of work-depth design) in which the main primitive was similar to the XMT sspawn command (discussed here). One thread was able to generate only one more thread at a time; these two threads would then generate one more thread each, and so on, instead of freeing the programmer to directly design for the work-depth analysis that follows (per the same 2009 chapter).
Cormen et al.'s9 dynamic multithreading should encourage hardware enhancement to allow simultaneously starting many threads in the same time required to start one thread. A step ahead of available hardware, XMT includes a spawn command that spawns any number of threads upon transition to parallel mode. Moreover, the ICE abstraction incorporates work-depth early in the design workflow, similar to Cormen et al.'s 1990 first edition.9
The XMT on-chip general-purpose computer architecture is aimed at the classic goal of reducing single-task completion time.
The O(log n) depth parallel merging algorithm versus the O(log2 n) depth one in Cormen et al.9 demonstrated an XMT advantage over current hardware, as XMT allows a parallel algorithm for the same problem that is both faster and simpler. The XMT hardware scheduling brought the hardware performance model much closer to work-depth and allowed the XMT workflow to streamline the design with the analysis from the start.
Several features of the serial paradigm made it a success, including a simple abstraction at the heart of the "contract" between programmers and builders, the software spiral, ease of programming, ease of teaching, and backward compatibility on serial code and application programming. The only feature that XMT, as in other multi-core approaches, does not provide is speedups for serial code. The ICE/PRAM/XMT workflow and architecture provide a viable option for the many-core era. My XMT solution should challenge and inspire others to come up with competing abstraction proposals or alternative architectures for ICE/PRAM. Consensus around an abstraction will move CS closer to convergence toward a many-core platform and putting the software spiral back on track.
The XMT workflow also gives programmers a productivity advantage. For example, I have traced several errors in student-developed XMTC programs to shortcuts the students took around the ICE algorithms. Overall, improved understanding of programmer productivity, a traditionally difficult issue in parallel computing, must be a top priority for architecture research. To the extent possible, evaluation of productivity should be on par with performance and power. For starters, productivity benchmarks must be developed.
Ease of programming, or programmability, is a necessary condition for the success of any many-core platform, and teachability is a necessary condition for programmability and in turn for productivity. The teachability of the XMT approach has been demonstrated extensively; for example, since 2007 more than 100 students in grades K12 have learned to program XMT, including in two magnet programs: Montgomery Blair High School, Silver Spring, MD, and Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, Alexandria, VA.22 Others are Baltimore Polytechnic High School, where 70% of the students are African American, and a summer workshop for middle-school students from underrepresented groups in Montgomery County, MD, public schools.
In the fall of 2010, I jointly conducted another experiment, this one via video teleconferencing with Professor David Padua of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign using Open MP and XMTC, with XMTC programming assignments run on the XMT 64-processor FPGA machine. Our hope was to produce a meaningful comparison of programming development time from the 30 participating Illinois students. The topics and problems covered in the PRAM/XMT part of the course were significantly more advanced than Open MP alone. Having sought to demonstrate the importance of teachability from middle school on up, I strongly recommend that it becomes a standard benchmark for evaluating many-core hardware platforms.
Blake et al.4 reported that after analyzing current desktop/laptop applications for which the goal was better performance, the applications tend to comprise many threads, though few of them are used concurrently; consequently, the applications fail to translate the increasing thread-level parallelism in hardware to performance gains. This problem is not surprising given that most programmers can't handle multi-core microprocessors. In contrast, guided by the simple ICE abstraction and by the rich PRAM knowledgebase to find parallelism, XMT programmers are able to represent that parallelism using a type of threading the XMT hardware is engineered to exploit for performance.
For more, see the XMT home page at the University of Maryland http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/users/vishkin/XMT/. The XMT software environment release is available by free download there and from sourceforge.net at http://sourceforge.net/projects/xmtc/, along with extensive documentation. A 2010 release of the XMTC compiler and cycle-accurate simulator of XMT can also be downloaded to any standard desktop computing platform. Teaching materials covering a University of Maryland class-tested programming methodology in which even college freshmen and high school students are taught only parallel algorithms are also available from the XMT Web pages.
This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant 0325393.
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Figure 4. Left side. FPGA board (size of a car license plate) with three FPGA chips (generously donated by Xilinx): A, B: Virtex-4LX200; C: Virtex-4FX100. Right side. 10mm X 10mm chip using IBM Flip-Chip technology.
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