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Research and Advances

On the security of multiple encryption

Double encryption has been suggested to strengthen the Federal Data Encryption Standard (DES). A recent proposal suggests that using two 56-bit keys but enciphering 3 times (encrypt with a first key, decrypt with a second key, then encrypt with the first key again) increases security over simple double encryption. This paper shows that although either technique significantly improves security over single encryption, the new technique does not significantly increase security over simple double encryption. Cryptanalysis of the 112-bit key requires about 256 operations and words of memory, using a chosen plaintext attack. While DES is used as an example, the technique is applicable to any similar cipher.
Research and Advances

Secure communications over insecure channels

According to traditional conceptions of cryptographic security, it is necessary to transmit a key, by secret means, before encrypted massages can be sent securely. This paper shows that it is possible to select a key over open communications channels in such a fashion that communications security can be maintained. A method is described which forces any enemy to expend an amount of work which increases as the square of the work required of the two communicants to select the key. The method provides a logically new kind of protection against the passive eavesdropper. It suggests that further research on this topic will be highly rewarding, both in a theoretical and a practical sense.

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