Research and Advances

The Hybrid Clicks and Bricks Business Model

With the advent of the Internet, retail business attracted a myriad of new online pure players employing a clicks-only business model. In the early stage of electronic commerce, many of these “e-tailers” achieved stunning growth rates and had massive revenue streams. Online retailers such as and, led the way as startups that showed […]


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Mobile Commerce: What It Is and What It Could Be

Just a few years ago, many pundits proclaimed that m-commerce had arrived, and would shortly provide unprecedented commercial functionality to the masses [2, 5]. Cell phone users were expected to be routinely accessing data online [5], and speedy third-generation cellular standards would soon solve associated bandwidth difficulties [2]. It hasn’t quite worked out that way—it […]

Physical design equivalencies in database conversion

As relational technology becomes increasingly accepted in commercial data processing, conversion of some of the huge number of existing navigational databases to relational databases is inevitable. It is thus important to understand how to recognize physical design modifications and enhancements in the navigational databases and how to convert them to equivalent relational terms as applicable.

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