Debate continues to be focused on how cyberattacks relate to war and foreign policy and what the international community's appropriate response to such incidents should be.
Attempts to address the issue of what type of cyberattack is equal to a traditional armed attack have resulted in the Tallinn Manual, with U.S. Naval Postgraduate School professor Bret Michael noting that "not all 'cyberattacks' rise to the level of an armed attack."
Observers note that conventional warfare will almost always use cyberwarfare as a complementary measure for crippling an adversary's communications and intelligence-gathering capabilities.
University of Madeira professor Larry Constantine dismisses the likelihood of the threat of military retaliation deterring cyberattacks, "because it's difficult, bordering on impossible, to identify a cyberattacker beyond a shadow of a doubt." On the other hand, standards of proof used in criminal law may be unnecessary for escalation from cyberwarfare to physical warfare, as they are inapplicable to military and intelligence operations, according to U.S. Air Force Lt. Col. Forrest Hare. Michael pointed out that showing who funded or guided the cyberattackers may be sufficient to warrant an armed response.
From IEEE Spectrum
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