Hopes for quantum computing have long been buoyed by the existence of algorithms that would solve some particularly challenging problems with exponentially fewer operations than any known algorithm for conventional computers. Many experts believe, but have been unable to prove, that these problems will resist even the cleverest non-quantum algorithms.
Recently, researchers have shown the strongest evidence yet that even if conventional computers were made much more powerful, they probably still could not efficiently solve some problems that a quantum computer could.
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