In this article we consider the question: How should autonomous systems be analyzed? In particular, we describe how the confluence of developments in two areasautonomous systems architectures and formal verification for rational agentscan provide the basis for the formal verification of autonomous systems behaviors.
We discuss an approach to this question that involves:
Autonomous systems are now being deployed in safety, mission, or business critical scenarios, which means a thorough analysis of the choices the core software might make becomes crucial. But, should the analysis and verification of autonomous software be treated any differently than traditional software used in critical situations? Or is there something new going on here?
Autonomous systems are systems that decide for themselves what to do and when to do it. Such systems might seem futuristic, but they are closer than we might think. Modern household, business, and industrial systems increasingly incorporate autonomy. There are many examples, all varying in the degree of autonomy used, from almost pure human control to fully autonomous activities with minimal human interaction. Application areas are broad, ranging from healthcare monitoring to autonomous vehicles.
But what are the reasons for this increase in autonomy? Typically, autonomy is used in systems that:
However, it may actually be cheaper to use an autonomous system. After all, humans need training, monitoring, safe environments, medical support, legal oversight, and so on.
Examples. There are many autonomous systems that have either been deployed or are in development. We clearly cannot survey them all so only provide a broad selection noted here.
Robotics and robot swarms. As we move from the restricted manufacturing robots seen in factories toward robots in the home and robot helpers for the elderly, so the level of autonomy required increases.
Human-robot teamwork. Once we move beyond just directing robots to undertake tasks, they become robotic companions. In the not too distant future, we can foresee teams of humans and robots working together but making their decisions individually and autonomously.
Pervasive systems, intelligent monitoring, among others. As sensors and communications are deployed throughout our physical environment and in many buildings, so the opportunity to bring together a multiplicity of sensor inputs has led to autonomous decision-making components that can, for instance, raise alarms and even take decisive action.
Autonomous road vehicles. Also known as "driverless cars," autonomous road vehicles have progressed beyond initial technology assessments (for example, DARPA Grand Challenges) to the first government-licensed autonomous cars.35
As we can see from these examples, autonomous systems are increasingly being used in safety/mission/business critical areas. Consequently, they need rigorous analysis. One traditional way to achieve this, at least in non-autonomous systems, is to use formal verification. While applying formal verification techniques to autonomous systems can be difficult, developments in autonomous system architectures are opening up new possibilities.
Autonomous Systems Architectures. Many autonomous systems, ranging over unmanned aircraft, robotics, satellites and even purely software applications, have a similar internal structure, namely layered architectures23 as summarized in Figure 1. Although purely connectionist/sub-symbolic architectures remain prevalent in some areas, such as robotics,10 there is a broad realization that separating out the important/difficult choices into an identifiable entity can be very useful for development, debugging, and analysis. While such layered architectures have been investigated for many years3,23 they appear increasingly common in autonomous systems.
Notice how the system in Figure 1 is split into real-world interactions, continuous control systems, and discontinuous control. For example, a typical unmanned aircraft system might incorporate an aircraft, a set of control systems encapsulated within an autopilot, and a high-level decision-maker that makes the key choices. Once a destination has been decided, the continuous dynamic control, in the form of the autopilot, will be able to fly there. The intelligence only becomes involved if either an alternative destination is chosen, or if some fault or unexpected situation occurs.
But what is this intelligent decision-making component? In the past this has often been conflated with the dynamic control elements, the whole being described using a large, possibly hierarchical, control system, genetic algorithm, or neural network. However, architectures are increasingly being deployed in which the autonomous, intelligent decision-making component is captured as an "agent."
Agents as Autonomous Decision Makers. The development and analysis of autonomous systems, particularly autonomous software, is different to traditional software in one crucial aspect. In designing, analyzing, or monitoring "normal" software we typically care about
Since autonomous software has to make its own decisions, it is often vital to know not only what the software does and when it does it, but also
This requirementdescribing why a system chooses one course of action over anotherprovides new entities to be analyzed. But how shall we describe these new entities? A very useful abstraction for capturing such autonomous behavior within complex, dynamic systems turns out to be the concept of an agent.22 Since the agent concept came into prominence in the 1980s, there has been vast development within both academia and industry.4,14,20,34 It has become clear this agent metaphor is very useful for capturing many practical situations involving complex systems comprising flexible, autonomous, and distributed components. In essence, agents must fundamentally be capable of flexible autonomous action.38
However, it turns out the "agent" concept on its own is still not enough! Systems controlled by neural networks, genetic algorithms, and complex control systems, among others, can all act autonomously and thus be called agents, yet the reasons for their actions are often quite opaque. Because of this, such systems are very difficult to develop, control, and analyze.
So, the concept of a rational agent has become more popular. Again, there are many variations9,33,39 but we consider this to be an agent that has explicit reasons for making the choices it does, and should be able to explain these if necessary.
Therefore, a rational agent can be examined to discover why it chose a certain course of action. Such agents are often programmed and analyzed by describing their motivations (for example, "goals"), information (for example, "knowledge"), and how these change over time (as we will discuss later). Rational agents can adapt their autonomous behavior to cater for the dynamic aspects of their environment, their requirements and their knowledge. Typically, they can also modify their decision-making following interactions with their environment. The predominant form of rational agent architecture is that provided through the Beliefs, Desires, and Intentions (BDI) approach.32,33 Here, the beliefs represent the agent's (probably incomplete, possibly incorrect) information about itself, other agents, and its environment, desires represent the agent's long-term goals, and intentions represent the goals the agent is actively pursuing.
Before we consider how we might verify autonomous systems and, in particular the rational agent that makes the core decisions, we first recap formal verification. In particular we will motivate and outline the tools and techniques for the agent verification we have developed.
So, we are clear now that autonomous systems are important, that their key decision-making components can usefully be represented through the rational agent concept, and their increasing use in critical areas means a deep and comprehensive form of analysis will be desirable. These concerns have led us to use formal logics for describing the required properties of our rational agents and then formal verification techniques to analyze how well the actual agents match these requirements. Formal verification encompasses a range of techniques that use mathematical and logical methods to assess the behavior of systems. The most common approach is to exhaustively assess all the behaviors of a system against a logical specification.13 But, how do we logically specify what an agent should do? In particular, how do we specify what decisions an agent can make and what motivations it has for making those decisions?
Logical Agent Specification. Logics provide a well-understood and unambiguous formalism for describing the behaviors, requirements, and properties of systems. They have clear syntax and semantics, well-researched structural properties, and comparative expressive power. Importantly, from our viewpoint, there are very many formal logics. This allows us to choose a logic appropriate to the types of properties and level of abstraction we require; for example:
So, we can usually choose logics that have the properties we require. Crucially, we can even construct new logics as the combinations of simpler logics. This turns out to be very useful for developing logical theories for rational agents as these typically consist of several dimensions:
Dynamismtemporal or dynamic logic;
Informationmodal/probabilistic logics of belief or knowledge; and
Motivationmodal logics of goals, intentions, desires.
For example, the BDI approach combines:31 a (branching) temporal/dynamic logic; a (KD45) modal logic of belief; a (KD) modal logic of desire; and a (KD) modal logic of intention. (For detail on different modal varieties, see Blackburn.2)
Formal Agent Verification. Once we have such a logical requirement, together with an autonomous system architecture wherein rational agent(s) encapsulate high-level decision-making, we have many options for carrying out formal verification, ranging across model-checking,13 runtime verification,24 and formal proof.21
While there are also several approaches to agent verification,7,29 the particular approach we adopt involves checking a BDI logical requirement against all practical executions of a program. This is termed the model checking of programs36 and depends on being able to extract all these possible program executions, for example through symbolic execution. This contrasts to many model checking approaches in which an abstract model of the program must first be constructed before it can be checked against a property. In the case of Java, model checking of programs is feasible as a modified virtual machine can be used to manipulate the program executions.26 It is this last approach to agent verification we adopt. In order to do so, we must also give a very brief overview of agent programming languages.
Programming Rational Agents. We have seen how the rational agent approach provides the key model for describing autonomous decision-making.
But, how can rational agents be programmed? Typically, programming languages for rational agents provide:
A typical agent rule/plan in such a language is:
The meaning of this rule is that, if the agent's goal is to "eat" and if the agent believes it has money but does not have food, then it will set up a new goal to go to the shop. Once that goal has been achieved, it will buy some food (delegated to a subsystem) and then set up a new goal to get home. Once at home it will eat and then update its beliefs to record that it believes it has eaten.
Such languages are essentially rule-based, goal-reduction languages, with the extra aspect that deliberation, the ability to change between goals and change between plan selection strategies at any time, is a core component. Almost all of these languages are implemented on top of Java, and the large number of agent platforms now available5,6 has meant the industrial uptake of this technology is continually increasing. The key ancestor of most of today's agent programming languages is
AgentSpeak,30 which introduced the programming of BDI agents using a modification of Logic Programming. Of the many descendants of
AgentSpeak, we use GWENDOLEN,19 which is based upon Jason,8 for programming our rational agents. Consequently, it is such programs that we directly verify.
The key ancestor of most of today's agent programming languages is
AgentSpeak, which introduced the programming of BDI agents using a modification of Logic Programming.
A full operational semantics for GWENDOLEN is presented in Dennis and Farwer.15 Key components of a GWENDOLEN agent are a set, , of beliefs that are ground first order formulae and a set, I, of intentions that are stacks of deeds associated with some event. Deeds include (among other things) the addition or removal of beliefs, the establishment of new goals, and the execution of primitive actions. GWENDOLEN is event driven and events include the acquisition of new beliefs (typically via perception), messages, and goals.
A programmer supplies plans that describe how to react to events by extending the deed stack of the intention associated with the event. The main task of a programmer working in GWENDOLEN is defining the system's initial beliefs and plans; these then describe the dynamic behavior of the agent. A GWENDOLEN agent executes within a reasoning cycle that includes the addition of beliefs from perception, the processing of messages, the selection of intentions and plans, and the execution of deeds.
Model Checking Agent Programs. We begin with program model checking, specifically the Java PathFinder 2 system (JPF2), an open source explicit-state model checker for Java programs.26,36 Since the vast majority of agent languages are built on top of Java, we have extended JPF2 to the Agent JPF (AJPF) system19 incorporating the checking of agent properties. However, in order to achieve this the semantics of the agent constructs used must be precisely defined. Such semantics can be given using the Agent Infrastructure Layer (AIL),16 a toolkit for providing formal semantics for agent languages (in particular BDI languages) built on Java. Thus, AJPF is essentially JPF2 with the theory of AIL built in; see Dennis et al.19
The whole verification and programming system is called MCAPL and is freely available on Sourceforge.a As the model checker is based on JPF2, the modified virtual machine is used to exhaustively explore all executions of the system. As each one is explored it is checked against the required property. If any violation is found, that execution is returned as a counterexample.
The GWENDOLEN language, mentioned earlier, is itself programmed using the AIL and so GWENDOLEN programs can be model checked directly via AJPF.
We now return to our original question: How do we go about verifying autonomous systems? Recall the architecture in Figure 1. For the traditional parts there are well known, recognized, and trusted approaches, such as testing for real-world interaction and analytic techniques for continuous dynamics. But what about the agent that makes high-level, intelligent choices about what to do? As we will explain, it is our approach to use formal verification of the potential choices the agent can take. This is feasible since, while the space of possibilities covered by the continuous dynamics is huge (and potentially infinite), the high-level decision-making within the agent typically involves navigation within a discrete state space. The agent rarely, if ever, bases its choices directly on the exact values of sensors, for example. It might base its decision on values reaching a certain threshold, but relies on its continuous dynamics to alert it of this, and such alerts are typically binary valued (either the threshold has been reached or it has not). Thus, we propose the mixture of techniques in Figure 1 to provide the basis for the formal verification of autonomous systems.
Verifying Autonomous Choices. How shall we verify autonomous decision-making? Our main proposal is to use program verification to demonstrate that the core rational agent always endeavors to act in line with our requirements and never deliberately chooses options it believes will lead to bad situations (for example, ones where the agent believes something is unsafe). Thus, we do not try to verify all the real-world outcomes of the agent's choices, but instead verify the choices themselves. In particular, we verify the agent always tries to achieve its goals/targets to the best of its knowledge/beliefs/ability. Thus, the agent targets situations it believes to be good and avoids situations it believes to be bad. Consequently, any guarantees here are about the autonomous system's decisions, not about its overall effects.
This lets us distinguish between a rational agent knowingly choosing a dangerous/insecure option and a rational agent unknowingly doing so based on an imperfect representation of the actual environment. Indeed, we argue the most crucial aspect of autonomous system verification, for example concerning safety, is to identify the agent never deliberately makes a choice it believes to be unsafe. We wish to ensure that if an unsafe situation arises it is because of unforeseen consequences of an agent's actions (that is, its model of the environment was too weak), not because the agent chose an option known to lead to a bad outcome.
Aside: Accidental or deliberate? Are all dangerous situations equally bad? What if a robot deliberately took an action that it knew would cause danger? Is this more serious than a robot accidentally causing this danger? This distinction can be important, not least to the public, and if a robot is being "vindictive," then few safeguards can protect us. Importantly, our approach allows us to distinguish between these cases. We can verify whether the agent beliefs were simply not accurate enough (in which case, the agent is "innocent") or whether the agent knew about the danger and decided to proceed anyway.
One reason for our approach of verifying what the agent chooses, based on its beliefs, involves the purely practical issue of trying to model the real world. We can never have a precise model of the real world and so can never say, for certain, what the effect of any action the system could choose might be. We might construct increasingly precise models approximating the real world, but they can clearly never be perfect.
A second reason is to treat the agent, to some extent, as we might treat a human. In assessing human behavior, we are happy if someone is competent and tries their best to achieve something. In particular, we consider someone as exhibiting "safe" behavior, if they have taken all the information they have access to into account and have competently made the safest decision they consider possible. Just as with humans, an agent's beliefs capture its partial knowledge about the real world. The agent's beliefs might be wrong, or incorrect, but we only verify the agent never chooses a course of action that it believes will lead to a bad situation. The agent's beliefs could be wrong and, of course, these beliefs might be refined/improved providing a better (more accurate) abstraction of the real situation.
We can contrast this with the traditional approach to formal (temporal) verification where we verify that bad things never happen and good things eventually happen. Instead, we only need to verify the agent believes these to be the case. This also has an impact upon the agent's selection of intentions/goals. As the agent is required to believe that no bad thing should occur, then it should never select an intention that it believes will lead to something bad.b
So, if the agent believes that achieving eventually leads to something bad, it will never intend to undertake .
In the context of the verifications discussed in this article we use the property specification language that is provided with AJPF.19 This language is propositional linear temporal logic (PLTL), extended with specific modalities for checking the contents of the agent's belief base (B), goal set (G), actions taken (A) and intentionsgoals that are associated with a deed stack(I).
This approach is clearly simpler as we can carry out verification without comprehensive modeling of the real world. Thus, we verify the choices the agent has, rather than all the real-world effects of those choices. Clearly, some parts of an agent's reasoning are still triggered by the arrival of information from the real world and we must deal with this appropriately. So, we first analyze the agent's program to assess what these incoming perceptions can be and then explore, via the AJPF model checker, all possible combinations of these. This allows us to be agnostic about how the real world might actually behave and simply verify how the agent behaves no matter what information it receives.
Furthermore, this allows us to use hypotheses that explicitly describe how patterns of perception may occur in reality. Taking such an approach clearly gives rise to a large state space because we explore all possible combinations of inputs to a particular agent. However it also allows us to investigate a multi-agent system in a compositional way. Using standard assume-guarantee (or rely-guarantee) approaches,25,28 we need only check the internal operation of a single agent at a time and can then combine the results from the model checking using deductive methods to prove theorems about the system as a whole.
To exemplify this approach, we review several different scenarios that have been implemented using GWENDOLEN and verified formally using AJPF.17,37 In all these examples, the distinction in Figure 1 is central. The agent makes a decision, passes it on to the continuous control to implement the fine detail, and then monitors the activity. The agent only becomes involved again if a new situation is reached, if a new decision is required, or if the agent notices some irregularity in the way the continuous control is working.
RoboCup Rescue Scenario. Imagine an "urban search and rescue" scenario, of the form proposed in the RoboCup Rescue challenge,27 where autonomous robots are searching for survivors after some natural disaster (for example, an earthquake). A robot builds up beliefs about some area using sensor inputs. Based on these beliefs, the robot makes decisions about whether to search further. So, we might verify:17
meaning if the searching robot believes it can leave the area, then it either believes a human is found or it believes the area is empty. We can verify this, but need to provide some abstraction of the sensor inputs. We model the environment by supplying, randomly, all relevant incoming perceptions to the robot. In this case it either detects a survivor or does not detect a survivor, at any location. It is important to note the robot could be wrong. Its sensors might not detect a survivor (for example, buried under rubble). However, this does not make the autonomous system incorrect; it has made the best decisions it can given the information it had.
When AJPF encounters a random choice in Java it treats it as a branch in the possible execution of the model and explores both branchesthat is, it checks the property holds both in the situation where the perception was received by the agent and the situation where the perception was not received. We can extend this to proving properties given simple assumptions about the behavior of the real world. These assumptions might be verified using other forms of analysis. Given the verification here, we might assume the robot's sensors accurately detect the human, and that its motor control operates correctly. This allows us to prove a stronger property that the agent will either find the human or the area is actually empty. These deductive aspects can be carried out by hand, or by using a suitable prover.
In more sophisticated scenarios we may want to check properties of groups of systems/agents working together. Imagine we now have another robot, capable of lifting rubble. The two robots work as a team: the "searching" robot will find the human; the "lifting" robot will then come and remove the rubble. We will refer to the beliefs of the lifting robot as Bl. Ideally, if these two work together as expected then we would like to show that eventually the lifter believes the human is free: Bl
free(human). However, this depends on several things, for example that any communication between the robots is reliable. We can check the behaviors of each agent separately, then combine these component properties with statements about communication, in order to verify whether the robots can cooperate.
We have been verifying the beliefs agents form about their environment in lieu of verifying actual facts. However, some choices we may legitimately wish to verify depend upon the outcomes of previous choices being as expected. Suppose our lifting agent does not deduce that the human is free (because it has moved some rubble), but continues to lift rubble out of the way until its sensors tell it the area is clear. We cannot verify the robot will eventually believe the human is free since we cannot be sure it will ever believe the human is clear of rubble. However, we can establish (and have verified) that assuming that, whenever the lifter forms an intention to free the human it will eventually believe the rubble is clear, then receipt of a message from the searching robot that a trapped human is located will eventually result in the lifter believing the human is free.
While much simplification has occurred here, it should be clear how we can carry out compositional verification, mixing agent model checking and temporal/modal proof. The input from sensors can be modeled in various ways to provide increasingly refined abstractions of the real world. Crucially, we can assess the choices the agent makes based on its beliefs about its environment and not necessarily what actually happens in its environment.c
Autonomous Satellite Scenario. Consider a satellite orbiting the Earth and attempting to keep on a particular path.18 We want to establish B
on_path, that is, the satellite believes it is always on the path. Yet, we cannot establish this since the satellite's agent cannot be sure it will never leave the path (since this would be an impossibly strong assumption about the environment).
However, we can show that
In other words, if anything goes wrong, the satellite will recognize this and will try to fix it. It might fail, but all we can show is that it always tries to succeed. Note that (1) is a property that needs to be established concerning the satellite's sensors, but (2) is indeed something we can verify of the agent.
Any autonomous system in control of an unmanned aircraft must be "human equivalent" or better. Human equivalence is, clearly, difficult to specify.
Engineers and mathematicians have developed strong techniques for analyzing control systems and scenarios and proving that a certain property holds. For example, we might separately prove that a continuous path planning algorithm works and so capture that as a behavior in a simplified model of the environment (here, 'A' means "the agent executes the external action of"):
Thus, if the agent executes some action based on continuous path planning to reach some destination it will eventually reach that destination. Again, notice how the verification of this will be carried out using other methods; we will just use this assumption during verification of the agent choices. As examples, we can verify several different properties:17
Note: If the satellite receives a message requesting it to move to a different position during this process, then subtle interactions between the agent's goals and plans can result in the satellite attempting to move to two locations at once. Attempting (and failing) to verify that, under suitable conditions, the agent would always eventually get on to the path led to the detection of a number of bugs such as this.
Autonomous Unmanned Aircraft Scenario. Unmanned aircraft are set to undertake a wide variety of roles within civil airspace. For safety, and to obtain regulatory approval, unmanned aircraft must be shown to be equivalent to manned aircraft and transparent to other airspace users.12 In essence, any autonomous systems in control of an unmanned aircraft must be "human equivalent" or better. Human equivalence is, clearly, difficult to specify. But perhaps a good place to start extracting desirable human behaviors is the statutory and regulatory documents designed to specify and exemplify ideal human behaviors, for example, the "Rules of the Air."11 In order to begin to verify the human equivalence of unmanned aircraft autonomy, we identified a very small (but salient) subset of the Rules of the Air,37 including the following.
A decision-making agent for an unmanned aircraft was written. A simulated environment was also developed using GWENDOLEN, consisting of: a sensor unit to generate alerts related to intruder aircraft and other air traffic; a navigation manager to generate alerts about the current flight path; and an aerodrome air traffic controller unit to simulate aerodrome air traffic control. In order to formally verify the agent controlling the unmanned aircraft will follow the three rules here they were translated into the logical formulae and verified using the AJPF model checker:37
Verifying such requirements not only shows the autonomous system makes choices consistent with these Rules of the Air, but can also highlight inconsistencies within the rules themselves.37
Once autonomous systems have a distinguished decision-making agent, then we can formally verify this agent's behavior. In particular, we have developed model checking techniques for rational agents, allowing us to explore all possible choices the agent might make. Notably, the architecture and the logical framework together allow us to verify not only what the agent chooses, but why it chooses it.
A central theme of our analysis of autonomous systems, and of the agents that control them, is to verify what the agent tries to do. Without a complete model of the real environment, then we cannot say the system will always achieve something, but we can say it will always try (to the best of its knowledge/ability) to achieve it. This is not only as much as we can reasonably say, it is entirely justifiable as we wish to distinguish accidental and deliberate danger. So, when considering safety, we cannot guarantee our system will never reach an unsafe situation, but we can guarantee the agent will never "knowingly" choose to move toward such a situation. Thus, all the choices of the agent/system are verified to ensure it never chooses goals/actions it believes will lead to bad situations. Crucially, this analysis concerns just the agent's internal decisions and so verification can be carried out without having to examine details of the real world. Thus, we verify the choices the agent has, rather than the (continuous/ uncertain) real-world effect of those choices.
A central theme of our analysis of autonomous systems, and of the agents that control them, is to verify what the agent tries to do.
Overall, we can see this as a shift from considering whether a system is correct to considering two aspects of systems:
We have considered (1) in this article. However, (2) may be discrete, if abstractions are used, or continuous and uncertain, requiring more complex analytical techniques.
This work is only just at the beginning, and the theme of verifying what autonomous systems try to do, rather than the effects they have, has much potential. However, there are many avenues of future work, the foremost currently being incorporation of uncertainty and probability. So, rather than verifying the agent never chooses a course of action it believes will lead to a bad situation, we would like to verify the agent never chooses a course of action that it believes is more likely to reach a "bad" situation than its other options.
In addition, there are clearly various different forms of "bad" situation, with different probabilities and measures concerning their seriousness. Again, these measures and probabilities should be incorporated into the properties verified.
Similarly, there are important aspects of truly autonomous behavior, such as the ability to plan and learn that we have not considered in any detail. We are interested in exploring how an agent might reason about new plans, for instance, to ensure their execution did not violate any important properties and so provide guarantees about the agents overall behavior even in the face of changing internal processes.
It is also important to assess if, and how, other approaches to the formalization of autonomous behaviors, for example, Arkin,1 can be involved in our verification.
Toward Certification. Certification can be seen as the process of negotiating with a certain legal authority in order to convince them that relevant safety requirements have been explored and mitigated in an appropriate way. As part of this process, various items of evidence are provided to advance the applicant's safety argument. This approach is widely used for the certification of real systems, from aircraft to safety critical software.
Clearly, we are mainly concerned with the certification of autonomous systems. As noted, systems might generally be analyzed with respect to the question, "Is it safe?" If there is a human involved at some point, for example, a pilot or controller, then some view must be taken on whether the human acts to preserve safety or not. For example, within aircraft certification arguments, it is usually assumed that a pilot, given appropriate information and capabilities, will act to preserve the aircraft's safety. Yet in a safety analysis, we rarely go any further. Essentially, the human is assumed to be benevolent.
Our approach provides a mechanism for analyzing the agent choices in the case of autonomous systems. Thus, while a standard safety argument might skip over human choices, assuming the pilot/driver/operator will endeavor to remain safe, we can formally verify the agent indeed tries its best to remain safe. In this way, our approach allows wider analysiswhile the intentions and choices of a pilot/driver/operator must be assumed to be good, we can actually examine the intentions and choices of an autonomous system in detail.
Acknowledgments. This work was partially supported by EPSRC, while the Virtual Engineering Centre is a University of Liverpool project partially supported by both NWDA and ERDF. We are grateful to our many collaborators, but particularly Rafael Bordini, Neil Cameron, Mike Jump, Alexei Lisitsa, Nick Lincoln, Bertie Müller, and Sandor Veres.
11. Civil Aviation Authority. CAP 393 Air Navigation: The Order and the Regulations; http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP393.pdf, April 2010.
12. Civil Aviation Authority. CAP 722 Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in UK AirspaceGuidance; http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP722.pdf, April 2010.
16. Dennis, L., Farwer, B., Bordini, R., Fisher, M. and Wooldridge, M. A common semantic basis for BDI languages. In Proc. 7th Int. Workshop on Programming Multiagent Systems, LNAI 4908 (2008). Springer, 124139.
30. Rao, A.
AgentSpeak(L): BDI agents speak out in a logical computable language. In Proc. 7th European Workshop on Modeling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World, LNCS 1038 (1996). Springer, 4255.
37. Webster, M., Fisher, M., Cameron, N. and Jump, M. Formal methods and the certification of autonomous unmanned aircraft systems. In Proc. 30th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security. LNCS 6894 (2011). Springer, 228242.
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