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Communications of the ACM

Table of Contents


ACM president's letter: SIGs


A learning program which plays partnership dominoes

A learning program has been written in BASIC to play four-player partnership dominoes. Because dominoes is a game of incomplete information, the program uses somewhat different principles of artificial intelligence from those …

Fen—an axiomatic basis for program semantics

A formal system is presented which abstracts the notions of data item, function, and relation. It is argued that the system is more suitable than set theory (or its derivatives) for the concise and accurate description of program …

Petri nets and speed independent design

Petri nets are investigated as one method of modeling speed independent asynchronous circuits. A study of circuit realizations of Petri nets leads to a demonstration of their usefulness in modeling speed independent operation …

Algorithm 450: Rosenbrock Function Minimization


Algorithm 451: chi-square quantiles [G1]


Algorithm 452: enumerating combinations of m out of n objects [G6]


Algorithm 453: Gaussian quadrature formulas for Bromwich's integral [D1]


Algorithm 454: the complex method for constrained optimization [E4]


Certification and remark on algorithm 404 [S14]


Remark on algorithm 412 [J6]


Remark on algorithm 357 [A1]


Remark on algorithm 424 [D1]


Remark on Algorithm 428 [Z]


Remark on algorithm 429 [C2]


Inductive methods for proving properties of programs

There are two main purposes in this paper: first, clarification and extension of known results about computation of recursive programs, with emphasis on the difference between the theoretical and practical approaches; second, …

On the capabilities of while, repeat, and exit statements

A well-formed program is defined as a program in which loops and if statements are properly nested and can be entered only at their beginning. A corresponding definition is given for a well-formed flowchart. It is shown that  …

A generalization of AVL trees

A generalization of AVL trees is proposed in which imbalances up to &Dgr; are permitted, where &Dgr; is a small integer. An experiment is performed to compare these trees with standard AVL trees and with balanced trees on the basis of …