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Communications of the ACM

Table of Contents


On determining C. S. education programs


In defense of ALGOL


On editorial procedures


On JOE


On comparison of the algorithms for linear programming


Toward improved communication capability


Welcoming remarks


Semiotics and programming languages


Programming semantics for multiprogrammed computations

The semantics are defined for a number of meta-instructions which perform operations essential to the writing of programs in multiprogrammed computer systems. These meta-instructions relate to parallel processing, protecting  …

The structure of programming languages

The following are identified as major components of every programming language: (1) the elementary program statement, (2) mechanisms for linking elementary statements together, (3) the means by which a program can obtain data …

The next 700 programming languages

A family of unimplemented computing languages is described that is intended to span differences of application area by a unified framework. This framework dictates the rules about the uses of user-coined names, and the conventions …

Syntax-directed interpretation of classes of pictures

A descriptive scheme for classes of pictures based on labeling techniques using parallel processing algorithms was proposed by the author some years ago. Since then much work has been done in applying this to bubble chamber pictures …

A graphical service system with variable syntax

Man-machine interaction in many fields of endeavor should be greatly facilitated in the near future through the use of interactive graphical languages. To provide a variety of display scope communication procedures, a Graphic …

Program translation viewed as a general data processing problem

Efficiency dictates that the overall effectiveness of a compiler be increased by all means available. For a compiler to have a substantial useful life it needs a clear logical structure, reliability and sound data processing  …

An ALGOL compiler: construction and use in relation to an elaborate operating system

An ALGOL translator has been prepared and integrated into the IBSYS Operating System. Assembly and “go” features of IBSYS permit immediate execution with optional listings, decks and debugging information. Using the chain feature …

More on extensible machines

One of the most salient characteristics of extensible machines (EM) is the facility for providing system control over program-to-program and program-to-data linkage (e.g., address connection.) It is the intent of this paper to …

Multilevel operating systems

The basic software for all newer computers is built on the well-established need for standard operating systems. This implies that all applications—no matter how large, complex or time consuming—must operate under (or, more precisely …

Evolution of the meta-assembly program

A generalized assembler called a “meta-assembler” is described. The meta-assembler is defined and factors which contributed to its evolution are presented. How a meta-assembler is made to function as an assembly program is described …

Requirements for real-time languages

Real-time languages have different requirements from other programming languages because of the special nature of their applications, the environment in which their object programs are executed and the environment in which they …

Online programming

When the transition has been made from offline to online programming, there are a number of changes in the working conditions noted. These changes in the environment make necessary corresponding changes in the processes related …

Data manipulation and programming problems in automatic information retrieval

Automatic information retrieval programs require the manipulation of a variety of different data structures, including linear text, sparse matrices, and tree or list structures. The main data manipulations to be performed in  …

Storage and retrieval of aspects of meaning in directed graph structures

An experimental system that uses LISP to make a conceptual dictionary is described. The dictionary associates with each English word the syntactic information, definitional material, and references to the contexts in which it …

TRAC, a procedure-describing language for the reactive typewriter

A description of the TRAC (Text Reckoning And Compiling) language and processing algorithm is given. The TRAC language was developed as the basis of a software package for the reactive typewriter. In the TRAC language, one can …

Summary session


On a generalized language for file organization and manipulation

I would like to speak on what I call a unified or generalized language for file organization and manipulation. I call it unified because some ideas from which disk file languages were developed are perfectly applicable to magnetic …

Some preliminary remarks on theoretical pragmatics

The term pragmatics has been used, as is well known, by Morris and Carnap to denote that branch of semiotics which deals with the relation between a language and its users. As such I don't like the term very much. But one might …

The use of English as a programming language

The purpose of this talk is to make a personal plea, backed up by some practical comments, for the use of English or anyone else's natural language as a programming language. This seems to be a suitable subject for the conference …

Microprogramming, emulators and programming languages

The problem we have been concerned with is that of converting language to action—or intellectual energy to mechanical energy. The medium that we use for this purpose is language and therefore we are preoccupied with the subject …

Advanced programming and the aims of standardization

Some of the most advanced programming techniques have emerged either because of the complete lack of coordinated standards, or because there was too rigid standardization and too soon, whether it was planned that way or not. …