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Communications of the ACM


71 - 80 of 371 for bentley


Understanding Video Rewatching Experiences

New video platforms have enabled a wide variety of opportunities for rewatching video content. From streaming sites such as Netflix, Hulu, and HBO Now, to the proliferation of syndicated content on cable and satellite television, to new streaming devices for the home such as Roku and Apple TV, there are countless ways that people can rewatch movies and television shows. But what are people doing? We set out to understand current rewatching practices across a variety of devices and services. Through an online, open-ended survey to 150 diverse people and in- depth, in-person interviews with 10 participants, we explore current rewatching behaviors. We quantify the types of content that are being rewatched as well as qualitatively explore the reasons and contexts behind rewatching. We conclude with key implications for the design of new video systems to promote rewatching behaviors.

2016-06-17
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2932213&dwn=1

SWIFT: Using Task-Based Parallelism, Fully Asynchronous Communication, and Graph Partition-Based Domain Decomposition for Strong Scaling on more than 100,000 Cores

We present a new open-source cosmological code, called SWIFT, designed to solve the equations of hydrodynamics using a particle-based approach (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) on hybrid shared / distributed-memory architectures. SWIFT was designed from the bottom up to provide excellent strong scaling on both commodity clusters (Tier-2 systems) and Top100-supercomputers (Tier-0 systems), without relying on architecture-specific features or specialized accelerator hardware. This performance is due to three main computational approaches:

• Task-based parallelism for shared-memory parallelism, which provides fine-grained load balancing and thus strong scaling on large numbers of cores.

• Graph-based domain decomposition, which uses the task graph to decompose the simulation domain such that the work, as opposed to just the data, as is the case with most partitioning schemes, is equally distributed across all nodes.

• Fully dynamic and asynchronous communication, in which communication is modelled as just another task in the task-based scheme, sending data whenever it is ready and deferring on tasks that rely on data from other nodes until it arrives.

In order to use these approaches, the code had to be re-written from scratch, and the algorithms therein adapted to the task-based paradigm. As a result, we can show upwards of 60% parallel efficiency for moderate-sized problems when increasing the number of cores 512-fold, on both x86-based and Power8-based architectures.

2016-06-08
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2929916&dwn=1

Rethinking the Design of Robotic Pets for Older Adults

Robots are seen as a potential solution to the perceived needs of the aging population. Thus far, research has primarily focused on robotics for the functional and emotional support of older adults. Robotic pets have been developed primarily for the older adult who is perceived as lonely and isolated, and fears have consequently arisen that robots will replace human caregivers and deceive older adults into developing relationships with them. Missing is the perspective of older adults on the ethics of and potential uses for robotic companion pets. In this study, we conducted focus groups with 41 older adults. We discuss concepts raised by focus group participants such as giving into the fiction of the robotic pet, the social role of the robot, and the role of reciprocity in building a relationship with a robotic pet. We present resulting considerations for new directions for robotic pet design for older adults.

2016-06-04
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2901811&dwn=1

The 32 Days of Christmas: Understanding Temporal Intent in Image Search Queries

Temporal terms, such as 'winter', 'Christmas', or 'January' are often used in search queries for personal images. But how do people's memories and perceptions of time match with the actual dates when their images were captured? We compared the temporal terms that 74 Flickr users used to search their own photo collections, and compared them to the date captured data in the target image. We also conducted a larger study across several billion images, comparing user-applied tags for holidays and seasons to the dates the images were captured. We demonstrate that various query terms and tags can be in conflict with the actual dates photos were taken for specific types of temporal terms up to 40% of the time. We will conclude by highlighting implications for search systems where users are querying for personal content by date.

2016-05-07
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2858255&dwn=1

FitPlay Games: Increasing Exercise Motivation Through Asynchronous Social Gaming

Many factors contribute to people's physical inactivity, but among the leading factors is a lack of motivation. Fitness trackers have been shown to encourage an increase in exercise, but they are frequently abandoned within a few short months. We developed our asynchronous-play social gaming platform, FitPlay Games, to fill the gap in motivation left by current fitness trackers. By providing users with a variety of asynchronous cooperative and competitive gaming styles, we enable them to find a motivation technique that works best for their lifestyle and fitness prowess. The platform encourages prolonged use of fitness trackers, helping users to have more healthy lifestyles. Individual games are designed to allow both the novice and the maven to have a chance at winning, leveling the playing field, and increasing motivation to win. The effectiveness, usability, and enjoyability of the social games will be assessed, with an emphasis on understanding differences in play habits due to gender and lifestyle.

2016-05-07
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2890367&dwn=1

Embedding User Understanding in the Corporate Culture: UX Research and Accessibility at Yahoo

This case study shows how a UX Research organization created a company-wide user first culture, aligned the strategy of multiple products to align with real user needs, and improved product usability in a global company with over 1 billion monthly web and mobile app users. We will describe the team, its organization and role, and specific ways research is conducted to positively impact product development. As the organization and function of research teams in industry has been largely opaque to the broader CHI community, we hope that this case study will provide deep insight and foster a larger conversation about the role of UX Research at scale and the best ways to organize and deliver that research for maximum effect.

2016-05-07
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2851592&dwn=1

On-Demand Biometrics: Fast Cross-Device Authentication

We explore the use of a new way to log into a web service, such as email or social media. Using on-demand biometrics, users sign in from a browser on a computer using just their name, which sends a request to their phone for approval. Users approve this request by authenticating on their phone using their fingerprint, which completes the login in the browser. On-demand biometrics thus replace passwords or temporary access codes found in two-step verification with the ease of use of biometrics. We present the results of an interview study on the use of on-demand biometrics with a live login backend. Participants perceived our system as convenient and fast to use and also expressed their trust in fingerprint authentication to keep their accounts safe. We motivate the design of on-demand biometrics, present an analysis of participants' use and responses around general account security and authentication, and conclude with implications for designing fast and easy cross-device authentication.

2016-05-07
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2858139&dwn=1

An Actionable Approach to Understand Group Experience in Complex, Multi-surface Spaces

There is a steadily growing interest in the design of spaces in which multiple interactive surfaces are present and, in turn, in understanding their role in group activity. However, authentic activities in these multi-surface spaces can be complex. Groups commonly use digital and non-digital artefacts, tools and resources, in varied ways depending on their specific social and epistemic goals. Thus, designing for collaboration in such spaces can be very challenging. Importantly, there is still a lack of agreement on how to approach the analysis of groups' experiences in these heterogeneous spaces. This paper presents an actionable approach that aims to address the complexity of understanding multi-user multi-surface systems. We provide a structure for applying different analytical tools in terms of four closely related dimensions of user activity: the setting, the tasks, the people and the runtime co-configuration. The applicability of our approach is illustrated with six types of analysis of group activity in a multi-surface design studio.

2016-05-07
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2858213&dwn=1

"I thought she would like to read it": Exploring Sharing Behaviors in the Context of Declining Mobile Web Use

The use of applications on mobile devices has changed dramatically over the past few years. While web browsing was once a common activity, it's now reported that 86% of time on mobile phones is in apps other than the browser. We set out to understand how the mobile web was currently fitting into people's lives and what web sessions looked like. Finding a dramatic reduction in mobile web revisi-tation rates compared to previous work and that a large number of sessions comprised single page views, we then studied how web content was shared with others in mobile messaging, the source of many single page sessions. The HCI community has not heavily studied this sharing activity that many people perform daily. We conclude with design implications for new mobile applications from our two studies with a combined 287 participants where we studied actual logs of mobile web use and link sharing behavior.

2016-05-07
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=2858056&dwn=1