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Communications of the ACM

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The Human in Emotion Recognition on Social Media: Attitudes, Outcomes, Risks

Emotion recognition algorithms recognize, infer, and harvest emotions using data sources such as social media behavior, streaming service use, voice, facial expressions, and biometrics in ways often opaque to the people providing these data. People's attitudes towards emotion recognition and the harms and outcomes they associate with it are important yet unknown. Focusing on social media, we interviewed 13 adult U.S. social media users to fill this gap. We find that people view emotions as insights to behavior, prone to manipulation, intimate, vulnerable, and complex. Many find emotion recognition invasive and scary, associating it with autonomy and control loss. We identify two categories of emotion recognition's risks: individual and societal. We discuss findings' implications for algorithmic accountability and argue for considering emotion data as sensitive. Using a Science and Technology Studies lens, we advocate that technology users should be considered as a relevant social group in emotion recognition advancements.


CARoma Therapy: Pleasant Scents Promote Safer Driving, Better Mood, and Improved Well-Being in Angry Drivers

Driving is a task that is often affected by emotions. The effect of emotions on driving has been extensively studied. Anger is an emotion that dominates in such investigations. Despite the knowledge on strong links between scents and emotions, few studies have explored the effect of olfactory stimulation in a context of driving. Such an outcome provides HCI practitioners very little knowledge on how to design for emotions using olfactory stimulation in the car. We carried out three studies to select scents of different valence and arousal levels (i.e. rose, peppermint, and civet) and anger eliciting stimuli (i.e. affective pictures and on-road events). We used this knowledge to conduct the fourth user study investigating how the selected scents change the emotional state, well-being, and driving behaviour of drivers in an induced angry state. Our findings enable better decisions on what scents to choose when designing interactions for angry drivers.


Ownership, Privacy, and Control in the Wake of Cambridge Analytica: The Relationship between Attitudes and Awareness

Has widespread news of abuse changed the public's perceptions of how user-contributed content from social networking sites like Facebook and LinkedIn can be used? We collected two datasets that reflect participants' attitudes about content ownership, privacy, and control, one in April 2018, while Cambridge Analytica was still in the news, and another in February 2019, after the event had faded from the headlines, and aggregated the data according to participants' awareness of the story, contrasting the attitudes of those who reported the greatest awareness with those who reported the least. Participants with the greatest awareness of the news story's details have more polarized attitudes about reuse, especially the reuse of content as data. They express a heightened desire for data mobility, greater concern about networked privacy rights, increased skepticism of algorithmically targeted advertising and news, and more willingness for social media platforms to demand corrections of inaccurate or deceptive content.


Bug or Feature? Covert Impairments to Human Computer Interaction

Computer users commonly experience interaction anomalies, such as the text cursor jumping to another location in a document, perturbed mouse pointer motion, or a disagreement between tactile input and touch screen location. These anomalies impair interaction and require the user to take corrective measures, such as resetting the text cursor or correcting the trajectory of the pointer to reach a desired target. Impairments can result from software bugs, physical hardware defects, and extraneous input. However, some designs alter the course of interaction through covert impairments, anomalies introduced intentionally and without the user's knowledge. There are various motivations for doing so rooted in disparate fields including biometrics, electronic voting, and entertainment. We examine this kind of deception by systematizing four different ways computer interaction may become impaired and three different goals of the designer, providing insight to the design of systems that implement covert impairments.


CHI '20: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems


We are excited to welcome you to CHI 2020 in beautiful Honolulu, Hawai'i!

Although CHI has strong origins in the USA, it has never been to Hawai'i. We see this rather "unusual" location for a conference as both an acknowledgement of the role underrepresented regions play in the field of Human-Computer Interaction as well as a symbol for more outreach to the rest of the world.

The ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems is the premier international conference of Human-Computer Interaction. CHI - pronounced "kai" - is a place where researchers and practitioners gather from across the world to discuss the latest in interactive technology. We are a multicultural community from highly diverse backgrounds who together investigate new and creative ways for people to interact.

CHI has a rich history of bringing together people from different disciplines, cultures, sectors, communities and backgrounds. Through CHI, designers, researchers and practitioners come together with the common purpose of creating technology that works for people and society.

We are increasingly realizing how our technology use is changing how we delineate work and pleasure, how it is advancing our productivity but at the same time threatening our wellbeing. In choosing a beautiful location like Hawai'i, we hope we highlight the importance of work-life balance and also elicit new discussions on such critical perspectives about the future of interactive technology.

Thanks to our massive numbers of volunteers and help from ACM and its SIGCHI members, we are excited to present a vibrant technical and social programme for you to experience. Over six days, participants can join and continue to engage with the CHI community and explore technology and world-class research, and engage in discussions with designers, researchers, students, and practitioners!

Ho'omalu-o means "to conserve; to use or manage wisely" in the Hawaiian language. One of our goals for CHI 2020 is to make more sustainable choices wherever we can, recognising, of course, that any travel, especially to locations like ours, has a significant impact on the environment. Working with the Sustainability Chairs, we have chosen recycled, biodegradable or eco-friendly products and engaged with local suppliers, wherever possible. We have implemented options to reduce travel related to the conference organisation by using videoconference meetings as much as possible. We have worked with the CHI Steering and Executive Committee to identify future opportunities to reduce travel and to reduce the number of meetings. We have removed the conference bag and gifts by default and encouraged the selection of more sustainable food choices (including the decision not to serve red meat). We have also chosen reusable or compostable crockery and cutlery where possible and are donating any remaining food to a homeless shelter to avoid food waste.

Furthermore, we have chosen to locate all activities in or near the Convention Centre and negotiated deals with hotels nearby to reduce the need for transportation. The Convention Centre itself is the first and only public assembly convention centre to earn LEED v.4 O+M Gold Certification in the United States. In the spirit of Ho'omaluo- , we have also decided to set the default temperature in the venue higher to reduce air condition energy usage.

A particular highlight is the Interactivity programme, which will be launched at the Reception on Monday evening, giving a live glimpse into the future with hands-on prototypes, design experiences as well as inspirational technologies.

We are also excited to continue the commitment to making CHI, and CHI content, more widely accessible. We will be live-streaming even more paper sessions. We also provide a nursing room, all-gender bathrooms, badge pronouns, a desensitization room and a prayer room.


Broadening Exposure to Socio-Political Opinions via a Pushy Smart Home Device

Motivated by the effects of the filter bubble and echo chamber phenomena on social media, we developed a smart home device, Spkr, that unpredictably "pushes" socio-political discussion topics into the home. The device utilised trending Twitter discussions, categorised by their socio-political alignment, to present people with a purposefully assorted range of viewpoints. We deployed Spkr in 10 homes for 28 days with a diverse range of participants and interviewed them about their experiences. Our results show that Spkr presents a novel means of combating selective exposure to socio-political issues, providing participants with identifiably diverse viewpoints. Moreover, Spkr acted as a conversational prompt for discussion within the home, initiating collective processes and engaging those who would not often be involved in political discussions. We demonstrate how smart home assistants can be used as a catalyst for provocation by altering and pluralising political discussions within households.


Parenting with Alexa: Exploring the Introduction of Smart Speakers on Family Dynamics

Smart speakers have become pervasive in family homes, creating the potential for these devices to influence parent-child dynamics and parenting behaviors. We investigate the impact of introducing a smart speaker to 10 families with children, over four weeks. We use pre- and post- deployment interviews with the whole family and in-home audio capture of parent-child interactions with the smart speaker for our analysis. Despite the smart speaker causing occasional conflict in the home, we observed that parents lever-aged the smart speaker to further parenting goals. We found three forms of influence the smart speaker has on family dynamics: 1) fostering communication, 2) disrupting access, and 3) augmenting parenting. All of these influences arise from a communally accessible, stand-alone voice interface which democratizes family access to technology. We discuss design implications in furthering parenting practices and behaviors as the capabilities of the technology continue to improve.


Experiential Qualities of Whispering with Voice Assistants

We present a Research through Design project that explores how whispering influences the ways people experience and interact with voice assistants. The research project includes a co-speculation workshop and the use of a design probe, which culminated in the production of a design fiction short film. Our design-led inquiry contributes with experiential qualities of whispering with voice assistants: creepiness, trust, and intimacy. Furthermore, we present how whispering opens up new dimensions of how and when voice interaction could be used. We propose that designers of whispering voice assistants should reflect on how they facilitate the experiential qualities of creepiness, trust, and intimacy, and reflect on the potential challenges whispering brings to the relation between a user and a voice assistant.


Re-examining Whether, Why, and How Human-AI Interaction Is Uniquely Difficult to Design

Artificial Intelligence (AI) plays an increasingly important role in improving HCI and user experience. Yet many challenges persist in designing and innovating valuable human-AI interactions. For example, AI systems can make unpredictable errors, and these errors damage UX and even lead to undesired societal impact. However, HCI routinely grapples with complex technologies and mitigates their unintended consequences. What makes AI different? What makes human-AI interaction appear particularly difficult to design? This paper investigates these questions. We synthesize prior research, our own design and research experience, and our observations when teaching human-AI interaction. We identify two sources of AI's distinctive design challenges: 1) uncertainty surrounding AI's capabilities, 2) AI's output complexity, spanning from simple to adaptive complex. We identify four levels of AI systems. On each level, designers encounter a different subset of the design challenges. We demonstrate how these findings reveal new insights for designers, researchers, and design tool makers in productively addressing the challenges of human-AI interaction going forward.


Snapstream: Snapshot-based Interaction in Live Streaming for Visual Art

Live streaming visual art such as drawing or using design software is gaining popularity. An important aspect of live streams is the direct and real-time communication between streamers and viewers. However, currently available text-based interaction limits the expressiveness of viewers as well as streamers, especially when they refer to specific moments or objects in the stream. To investigate the feasibility of using snapshots of streamed content as a way to enhance streamer-viewer interaction, we introduce Snapstream, a system that allows users to take snapshots of the live stream, annotate them, and share the annotated snapshots in the chat. Streamers can also verbally reference a specific snapshot during streaming to respond to viewers' questions or comments. Results from live deployments show that participants communicate more expressively and clearly with increased engagement using Snapstream. Participants used snapshots to reference part of the artwork, give suggestions on it, make fun images or memes, and log intermediate milestones. Our findings suggest that visual interaction enables richer experiences in live streaming.