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Companionship Is Not a Function: The Effect of a Novel Robotic Object on Healthy Older Adults' Feelings of "Being-Seen"

One of the challenges faced by healthy older adults is experiencing feelings of not "being-seen". Companion robots, commonly designed with zoomorphic or humanoid appearance show success among clinical older adults, but healthy older adults find them degrading. We present the design and implementation of a novel non-humanoid robot. The robot's primary function is a cognitive word game. Social interaction is conveyed as a secondary function, using non-verbal gestures, inspired by dancers' movement. In a lab study, 39 healthy older adults interacted with the prototype in 3 conditions: Companion-Function; Game-Function; and No-Function. Results show the non-verbal gestures were associated with feelings of "being-seen", and willingness to accept the robot into their home was influenced by its function, with game significantly higher than companion. We conclude that robot designers should further explore the potential of non-humanoid robots as a new class of companion robots, with a primary function that is not companionship.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376411&dwn=1

Exploring the Quality, Efficiency, and Representative Nature of Responses Across Multiple Survey Panels

A common practice in HCI research is to conduct a survey to understand the generalizability of findings from smaller-scale qualitative research. These surveys are typically deployed to convenience samples, on low-cost platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk or Survey Monkey, or to more expensive market research panels offered by a variety of premium firms. Costs can vary widely, from hundreds of dollars to tens of thousands of dollars depending on the platform used. We set out to understand the accuracy of ten different survey platforms/panels compared to ground truth data for a total of 6,007 respondents on 80 different aspects of demographic and behavioral questions. We found several panels that performed significantly better than others on certain topics, while different panels provided longer and more relevant open-ended responses. Based on this data, we highlight the benefits and pitfalls of using a variety of survey distribution options in terms of the quality, efficiency, and representative nature of the respondents and the types of responses that can be obtained.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376671&dwn=1

Designing an Eyes-Reduced Document Skimming App for Situational Impairments

Listening to text using read-aloud applications is a popular way for people to consume content when their visual attention is situationally impaired (e.g., commuting, walking, tired eyes). However, due to the linear nature of audio, such apps do not support skimming---a non-linear, rapid form of reading---essential for quickly grasping the gist and organization of difficult texts, like academic or professional documents. To support auditory skimming for situational impairments, we (1) identified the user needs and challenges in auditory skimming through a formative study (N=20), (2) derived the concept of "eyes-reduced" skimming that blends auditory and visual modes of reading, inspired by how participants mixed visual and non-visual interactions, (3) generated a set of design guidelines for eyes-reduced skimming, and (4) designed and evaluated a novel audio skimming app that embodies the guidelines. Our in-situ preliminary observation study (N=6) suggested that participants were positive about our design and were able to auditorily skim documents. We discuss design implications for eyes-reduced reading, read-aloud apps, and text-to-speech engines.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376641&dwn=1

Supporting Self-Injury Recovery: The Potential for Virtual Reality Intervention

In this paper, we explore the use of virtual reality (VR) in assisting individuals who self-injure. Past work on self-injury in HCI has focused almost exclusively on mobile applications and message boards. As VR systems become more common, it is worth exploring what unique affordances of the technology can be leveraged to support self-injury reduction and cessation. Research on VR intervention and self-injury treatment informed the design of three novel virtual reality experiences. Nineteen interviews were conducted with individuals with current, or a past history of, self-injury with the goals of uncovering overall impressions of the perceived efficacy of VR with this population, as well as better understanding key mechanisms which impact their experience. Our analysis reveals four key elements common across all experiences: transportation, embodiment, immersion/distraction, and sense of control, and additional themes within each unique experience. We discuss the implications of these findings for future intervention design.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376396&dwn=1

Evaluating Smartwatch-based Sound Feedback for Deaf and Hard-of-hearing Users Across Contexts

We present a qualitative study with 16 deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) participants examining reactions to smartwatch-based visual + haptic sound feedback designs. In Part 1, we conducted a Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) evaluation of three smartwatch feedback techniques (visual alone, visual + simple vibration, and visual + tacton) and investigated vibrational patterns (tactons) to portray sound loudness, direction, and identity. In Part 2, we visited three public or semi-public locations where we demonstrated sound feedback on the smartwatch in situ to examine contextual influences and explore sound filtering options. Our findings characterize uses for vibration in multimodal sound awareness, both for push notification and for immediately actionable sound information displayed through vibrational patterns (tactons). In situ experiences caused participants to request sound filtering - particularly to limit haptic feedback - as a method for managing soundscape complexity. Additional concerns arose related to learnability, possibility of distraction, and system trust. Our findings have implications for future portable sound awareness systems.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376406&dwn=1

Why Johnny Can't Unsubscribe: Barriers to Stopping Unwanted Email

A large proportion of email messages in an average Internet user's inbox are unwanted commercial messages from mailing lists, bots, and so on. Although such messages often include instructions to unsubscribe, people still struggle with stopping unwanted email. We investigated the user experience of unsubscribing from unwanted email messages by recruiting 18 individuals for via a lab study followed by semi-structured interviews. Based on unsubscribing practices of the study participants, we synthesized eight common unsubscription mechanisms and identified the corresponding user experience challenges. We further uncovered alternative practices aimed at circumventing the need to unsubscribe. Our findings reveal frustration with the prevailing options for limiting access to the self by managing email boundaries. We apply our insight to offer design suggestions that could help commercial providers improve the user experience of unsubscribing and provide users more control over the email they receive.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376165&dwn=1

Towards Participatory Video 2.0

Participatory video (PV) is an established practice for enabling communities to "speak truth to power" and has been widely used by local, national and international Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). However, the digital media landscape has changed dramatically since PV became widely accessible with the rise of the camcorder in the 1980s. Current media practices have evolved considerably since, yet PV remains essentially unchanged. We report on an investigation of current PV practices and reflect on these in terms of what the future for PV holds. We conducted interviews with staff at a global humanitarian network who directly and indirectly engage in community story capture; and explore their reflections on the potentials and barriers to PV use. We propose a new vision for PV that draws on current visual media production, consumption and distribution technologies and practices, and propose principles on which PV 2.0, a new generation of Participatory Video can be founded.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376694&dwn=1

Sensor Illumination: Exploring Design Qualities and Ethical Implications of Smart Cameras and Image/Video Analytics

Drawing analogies between smart cameras and electric lighting, we highlight and extrapolate design trends towards always-on sensing in intimate contexts, and the functional expansion of smart cameras as general-purpose and multi-functional devices. Employing a research through design (RtD) approach, we extrapolate these trends using speculative scenarios, materialize the scenarios by designing and constructing lighting-inspired smart camera fixtures, and self-experiment with these fixtures to introduce and exacerbate privacy and security issues, and inspire creative workarounds and design opportunities for sensor-level regulation. We synthesize our insights by presenting 8 smart camera sensing design qualities for addressing privacy, security, and related social and ethical issues.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376347&dwn=1

"Hi! I am the Crowd Tasker" Crowdsourcing through Digital Voice Assistants

Inspired by the increasing prevalence of digital voice assistants, we demonstrate the feasibility of using voice interfaces to deploy and complete crowd tasks. We have developed Crowd Tasker, a novel system that delivers crowd tasks through a digital voice assistant. In a lab study, we validate our proof-of-concept and show that crowd task performance through a voice assistant is comparable to that of a web interface for voice-compatible and voice-based crowd tasks for native English speakers. We also report on a field study where participants used our system in their homes. We find that crowdsourcing through voice can provide greater flexibility to crowd workers by allowing them to work in brief sessions, enabling multi-tasking, and reducing the time and effort required to initiate tasks. We conclude by proposing a set of design guidelines for the creation of crowd tasks for voice and the development of future voice-based crowdsourcing systems.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376320&dwn=1

Giving Voice to Silent Data: Designing with Personal Music Listening History

Music streaming services collect listener data to support personalization and discovery of their extensive catalogs. Yet this data is typically used in ways that are not immediately apparent to listeners. We conducted design workshops with ten Spotify listeners to imagine future voice assistant (VA) interactions leveraging logged music data. We provided participants with detailed personal music listening data, such as play-counts and temporal patterns, which grounded their design ideas in their current behaviors. In the interactions participants designed, VAs did not simply speak their data out loud; instead, participants envisioned how data could implicitly support introspection, behavior change, and exploration. We present reflections on how VAs could evolve from voice-activated remote controls to intelligent music coaches and how personal data can be leveraged as a design resource.

2020-04-21
https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3376493&dwn=1