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Communications of the ACM

1 - 10 of 286 for bentley

Keeping science on keel when software moves

An approach to reproducibility problems related to porting software across machines and compilers.


ArborX: A Performance Portable Geometric Search Library

Searching for geometric objects that are close in space is a fundamental component of many applications. The performance of search algorithms comes to the forefront as the size of a problem increases both in terms of total object count as well as in the total number of search queries performed. Scientific applications requiring modern leadership-class supercomputers also pose an additional requirement of performance portability, i.e., being able to efficiently utilize a variety of hardware architectures. In this article, we introduce a new open-source C++ search library, ArborX, which we have designed for modern supercomputing architectures. We examine scalable search algorithms with a focus on performance, including a highly efficient parallel bounding volume hierarchy implementation, and propose a flexible interface making it easy to integrate with existing applications. We demonstrate the performance portability of ArborX on multi-core CPUs and GPUs and compare it to the state-of-the-art libraries such as Boost.Geometry.Index and nanoflann.


A Preliminary Study of Emotional Contagion in Live Streaming

Live streaming is an increasingly popular communication medium that allows real-time interaction among a broadcaster and an audience of any size. Using archived YouTube live video transcripts and associated live chat messages, we find evidence for emotional contagion in live streams: sentiment in live video oral transcripts and viewers? text chat is associated with the sentiment in subsequent viewers? comments. This relationship is stronger between viewers? chat messages and the subsequent chat than between the oral messages in the video and the subsequent chat. However, in some types of live streams, negative sentiment in the live video is followed by less negative chat. We conclude with a discussion of future research and potential uses of the dataset.


Validity frame concept as effort-cutting technique within the verification and validation of complex cyber-physical systems

The increasing performance demands and certification needs of complex cyber-physical systems (CPS) raise the complexity of the engineering process, not only within the development phase, but also in the Verification and Validation (V&V) phase. A proven technique to handle the complexity of CPSs is Model-Based Design (MBD). Nevertheless, the verification and validation of complex CPSs is still an exhaustive process and the usability of the models to front-load V&V activities heavily depends on the knowledge of the models and the correctness of the conducted virtual experiments. In this paper, we explore how the effort (and cost) of the V&V phase of the engineering process of complex CPSs can be reduced by enhancing the knowledge about the system components, and explicitly capturing it within their corresponding validity frame. This effort reduction originates from exploiting the captured system knowledge to generate efficient V&V processes and by automating activities at different model life stages, such as the setup and execution of boundary-value or fault-injection tests. This will be discussed in the context of a complex CPS: a safety-critical adaptive cruise control system.


Towards adaptive abstraction for continuous time models with dynamic structure

Humans often switch between multiple levels of abstraction when reasoning about salient properties of complex systems. These changes in perspective may be leveraged at runtime to improve both performance and explainability, while still producing identical answers to questions about the properties of interest. This technique, which switches between multiple abstractions based on changing conditions in the modelled system, is also known as adaptive abstraction.

The Modelica language represents systems as a-causal continuous equations, which makes it appropriate for the modelling of physical systems. However adaptive abstraction requires dynamic structure modelling. This raises many technical challenges in Modelica since it has poor support for modifying connections during simulation. Its equation-based nature means that all equations need to be well-formed at all times, which may not hold when switching between levels of abstraction. The initialization of models upon switching must also be carefully managed, as information will be lost or must be created when switching abstractions [1].

One way to allow adaptive abstraction is to represent the system as a multi-mode hybrid Modelica model, a mode being an abstraction that can be switched to based on relevant criteria. Another way is to employ a co-simulation [2] approach, where modes are exported as "black boxes" and orchestrated by a central algorithm that implements adaptivity techniques to dynamically replace components when a switching condition occurs.

This talk will discuss the benefits of adaptive abstraction using Modelica, and the conceptual and technical challenges towards its implementation. As a stand-in for a complex cyber-physical system, an electrical transmission line case study is proposed where attenuation is studied across two abstractions having varying fidelity depending on the signal. Our initial results, as well as our explorations towards employing Modelica models in a co-simulation context using the DEVS formalism [4] are discussed. A Modelica only solution allows to tackle complexity via decomposition, but does not improve performances as all modes are represented as a single set of equations. The co-simulation approach might offer better performances [3], but complicates the workflow.


ORES: Lowering Barriers with Participatory Machine Learning in Wikipedia

Algorithmic systems---from rule-based bots to machine learning classifiers---have a long history of supporting the essential work of content moderation and other curation work in peer production projects. From counter-vandalism to task routing, basic machine prediction has allowed open knowledge projects like Wikipedia to scale to the largest encyclopedia in the world, while maintaining quality and consistency. However, conversations about how quality control should work and what role algorithms should play have generally been led by the expert engineers who have the skills and resources to develop and modify these complex algorithmic systems. In this paper, we describe ORES: an algorithmic scoring service that supports real-time scoring of wiki edits using multiple independent classifiers trained on different datasets. ORES decouples several activities that have typically all been performed by engineers: choosing or curating training data, building models to serve predictions, auditing predictions, and developing interfaces or automated agents that act on those predictions. This meta-algorithmic system was designed to open up socio-technical conversations about algorithms in Wikipedia to a broader set of participants. In this paper, we discuss the theoretical mechanisms of social change ORES enables and detail case studies in participatory machine learning around ORES from the 5 years since its deployment.


Sochiatrist: Signals of Affect in Messaging Data

Messaging is a common mode of communication, with conversations written informally between individuals. Interpreting emotional affect from messaging data can lead to a powerful form of reflection or act as a support for clinical therapy. Existing analysis techniques for social media commonly use LIWC and VADER for automated sentiment estimation. We correlate LIWC, VADER, and ratings from human reviewers with affect scores from 25 participants. We explore differences in how and when each technique is successful. Results show that human review does better than VADER, the best automated technique, when humans are judging positive affect ($r_s=0.45$ correlation when confident, $r_s=0.30$ overall). Surprisingly, human reviewers only do slightly better than VADER when judging negative affect ($r_s=0.38$ correlation when confident, $r_s=0.29$ overall). Compared to prior literature, VADER correlates more closely with PANAS scores for private messaging than public social media. Our results indicate that while any technique that serves as a proxy for PANAS scores has moderate correlation at best, there are some areas to improve the automated techniques by better considering context and timing in conversations.


Modeling User-Centered Page Load Time for Smartphones

Page Load Time (PLT) is critical in measuring web page load performance. However, the existing PLT metrics are designed to measure the Web page load performance on desktops/laptops and do not consider user interactions on mobile browsers. As a result, they are ill-suited to measure mobile page load performance from the perspective of the user. In this work, we present the Mobile User-Centered Page Load Time Estimator (muPLTest), a model that estimates the PLT of users on Web pages for mobile browsers. We show that traditional methods to measure user PLT for desktops are unsuited to mobiles because they only consider the initial viewport, which is the part of the screen that is in the user’s view when they first begin to load the page. However, mobile users view multiple viewports during the page load process since they start to scroll even before the page is loaded. We thus construct the muPLTest to account for page load activities across viewports. We train our model with crowdsourced scrolling behavior from live users. We show that muPLTest predicts ground truth user-centered PLT, or the muPLT, obtained from live users with an error of 10-15% across 50 Web pages. Comparatively, traditional PLT metrics perform within 44-90% of the muPLT. Finally, we show how developers can use the muPLTest to scalably estimate changes in user experience when applying different Web optimizations.


See What I’m Saying? Comparing Intelligent Personal Assistant Use for Native and Non-Native Language Speakers

Limited linguistic coverage for Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPAs) means that many interact in a non-native language. Yet we know little about how IPAs currently support or hinder these users. Through native (L1) and non-native (L2) English speakers interacting with Google Assistant on a smartphone and smart speaker, we aim to understand this more deeply. Interviews revealed that L2 speakers prioritised utterance planning around perceived linguistic limitations, as opposed to L1 speakers prioritising succinctness because of system limitations. L2 speakers see IPAs as insensitive to linguistic needs resulting in failed interaction. L2 speakers clearly preferred using smartphones, as visual feedback supported diagnoses of communication breakdowns whilst allowing time to process query results. Conversely, L1 speakers preferred smart speakers, with audio feedback being seen as sufficient. We discuss the need to tailor the IPA experience for L2 users, emphasising visual feedback whilst reducing the burden of language production.


Preserving Contextual Awareness during Selection of Moving Targets in Animated Stream Visualizations

In many types of dynamic interactive visualizations, it is often desired to interact with moving objects. Stopping moving objects can make selection easier, but pausing animated content can disrupt perception and understanding of the visualization. To address such problems, we explore selection techniques that only pause a subset of all moving targets in the visualization. We present various designs for controlling pause regions based on cursor trajectory or cursor position. We then report a dual-task experiment that evaluates how different techniques affect both target selection performance and contextual awareness of the visualization. Our findings indicate that all pause techniques significantly improved selection performance as compared to the baseline method without pause, but the results also show that pausing the entire visualization can interfere with contextual awareness. However, the problem with reduced contextual awareness was not observed with our new techniques that only pause a limited region of the visualization. Thus, our research provides evidence that region-limited pause techniques can retain the advantages of selection in dynamic visualizations without imposing a negative effect on contextual awareness.