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Communications of the ACM

121 - 130 of 1,851 for bentley

Do Game Bots Dream of Electric Rewards?: The universality of intrinsic motivation

The purpose of this paper is to draw together theories, ideas, and observations related to rewards, motivation, and play to develop and question our understanding and practice of designing reward-based systems and technology. Our exploration includes reinforcement, rewards, motivational theory, flow, play, games, gamification, and machine learning. We examine the design and psychology of reward-based systems in society and technology, using gamification and machine learning as case studies. We propose that the problems that exist with reward-based systems in our society are also present and pertinent when designing technology. We suggest that motivation, exploration, and play are not just fundamental to human learning and behaviour, but that they could transcend nature into machine learning. Finally, we question the value and potential harm of the reward-based systems that permeate every aspect of our lives and assert the importance of ethics in the design of all systems and technology.

Designing our future students: Introducing User Experience to teens through a UCD charette

In order to introduce high school students to the user-centered design process, our team created an outreach activity called the UCD charette. In this experience report, we share how we developed and implemented the charette. We provide background on the rationale and original goals of the charette. Next, we detail how we iteratively developed the workshop and piloted it with over 160 students, in 14 settings. To evaluate the effort, we collected and analyzed quantitative and qualitative assessment data from students, feedback from teachers, and our team's considerations of what worked well and what needed improvement. We conclude this report with reflections on the effort, limitations and our next steps for the project.

If You Ask Nicely: A Digital Assistant Rebuking Impolite Voice Commands

Digital home assistants have an increasing influence on our everyday lives. The media now reports how children adapt the consequential, imperious language style when talking to real people. As a response to this behavior, we considered a digital assistant rebuking impolite language. We then investigated how adult users react when being rebuked by the AI. In a between-group study (N = 20), the participants were being rejected by our fictional speech assistant "Eliza" when they made impolite requests. As a result, we observed more polite behavior. Most test subjects accepted the AI's demand and said "please" significantly more often. However, many participants retrospectively denied Eliza the entitlement to politeness and criticized her attitude or refusal of service.

Mental Workload and Language Production in Non-Native Speaker IPA Interaction

Through smartphones and smart speakers, intelligent personal assistants (IPAs) have made speech a common interaction modality. With linguistic coverage and varying functionality levels, many speakers engage with IPAs using a non-native language. This may impact mental workload and patterns of language production used by non-native speakers. We present a mixed-design experiment, where native (L1) and non-native (L2) English speakers completed tasks with IPAs via smartphones and smart speakers. We found significantly higher mental workload for L2 speakers in IPA interactions. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found no significant differences between L1 and L2 speakers in number of turns, lexical complexity, diversity, or lexical adaptation when encountering errors. These findings are discussed in relation to language production and processing load increases for L2 speakers in IPA interaction.

Exploring Online Video Watching Behaviors

Laptop and desktop computers are frequently used to watch online videos from a wide variety of services. From short YouTube clips, to television programming, to full-length films, users are increasingly moving much of their video viewing away from television sets towards computers. But what are they watching, and when? We set out to understand current video use on computers through analyzing full browsing histories from a diverse set of online Americans, finding some temporal differences in genres watched, yet few differences in the length of videos watched by hour. We also explore topics of videos, how users arrive at online videos through referral links, and conclude with several implications for the design of online video services that focus on the types of content people are actually watching online.

A resolution reduction method for multi-resolution terrain maps

Raster images such as raster terrain maps are commonly used in computer graphics. For rapid processing such as rendering and rapid feature extraction, rapid resolution reduction methods are required that keep the quality of huge images. This study deals with the resolution reduction methods.

Mobile wellness: collecting, visualizing and interacting with personal health data

Mobile devices are now able to connect to a variety of sensors and provide personalized information to help people reflect on and improve their health. For example, pedometers, heart-rate sensors, glucometers, and other sensors can all provide real-time data to a variety of devices. Collecting and interacting with personal health or well-being data is a growing research area. This workshop will focus on the ways in which our mobile devices can aggregate and visualize these types of data and how these data streams can be presented to encourage interaction, increased awareness and positive behavior change.